The Indo-European Controversy: An Interview.

The Indo-European Controversy: An Interview.

Kingdom of Mutapa Great Zimbabwe: Tower in the Great Enclosure Settlements of Bantu -speaking peoples, who were iron -using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century displacing and absorbing the original Khoisan speakers. They slowly moved south, and the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around The southernmost group was the Xhosa people , whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan inhabitants. Monomotapa was a medieval kingdom c. Its old capital was located at Great Zimbabwe. In , Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to reach the southernmost tip of Africa. For most of the 17th and 18th centuries, the slowly expanding settlement was a Dutch possession. Great Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope area in , ostensibly to prevent it from falling into the hands of the French but also to use Cape Town in particular as a stop on the route to Australia and India. It was later returned to the Dutch in , but soon afterwards the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy, and the British annexed the Cape Colony in

13.4 Impacts of Early Agriculture and Deforestation on Geomorphic Systems

George Walkden at New Books in Language: Who were the Indo-Europeans? Were they all-conquering heroes?

September (Orals passed through Autumn ’17) Download the Dissertation Topic List in pdf format.. Presented below are the research topics that Ph.D students in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University are currently engaged in.

Text Intro Just to give a brief explanation of the Ugaritic texts, which are the primary comparison texts, they date from the 14th century BCE and before. The following is a list of the Ugaritic text abbreviations. Unfortunately there are different notation systems created by different authors, for the same text. As I stated earlier, these deities cross borders and boundaries, taking beliefs with them, merging and carrying on through time.

Rather, developmental process began, at the latest, at the end of the Bronze Age, gained momentum during the Iron Age, and finally issued it in a practical, and at certain points, even theoretical, monotheism. It seems that particular gods or better, their priesthoods gobbled up other gods, so to speak, and so took over their functions and identities. Thus eventuated a monopoly on divine worship — a development that certainly also had something to do with economic and political interests.

The old branch of Egyptian monotheism that Lemeche is referring to is that of the primal creator Ptah, before the later Egyptian trinity was formed and the solar aspects were mainly attributed to Ra, said to be the son of Ptah.

DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List

The hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in , combining kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European PIE -speaking peoples. She tentatively named the culture “Kurgan” after their distinctive burial mounds and traced its diffusion into Europe. This hypothesis has had a significant impact on Indo-European studies.

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia.

Geology[ edit ] Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called “Greater India”, [14] a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene.

NASA images of the Indian subcontinent during day and night. The Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate , which has been relatively isolated from the rest of Eurasia. These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea.

Geopolitically , it had formed the whole territory of Greater India.

DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List

Even in these traditions, remnants of male lunar deities, like Menelaus , remain. Helios as the eye of Zeus , [54] [55] Hvare-khshaeta as the eye of Ahura Mazda , and the sun as “God’s eye” in Romanian folklore. His name literally means “The Striker. The Roman god Mars is also a speculated descendent, since he originally had thunderer characteristics.

September (Orals passed through Autumn ’17) Download the Dissertation Topic List in pdf format.. Presented below are the research topics that Ph.D students in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University are currently engaged in.

This oceanic mechanism could lead to a misunderstanding between the Indian summer monsoon SM and orbital forcing and could confuse a direct comparison with other archives derived from other monsoonal sub-systems such as East-Asian or African records. The grain size proxy deals with the regional continental climate through fluvial and eolian processes.

It cannot be linked to changes in nutrient content of AMOC and present the same phase relationship timing than the other SM proxies. This demonstrates that the productivity signals Bromine in the northern Arabian Sea are mainly controlled by SM dynamics and not AMOC modulated nutrients at orbital scale changes. We thus build a multi-proxy record of SM variability i. SM stack using statistical tools principal component analysis further compiled on an age model constructed independently from orbital tuning.

These results are consistent with previous studies based on marine and terrestrial records in both Indian and Asian regions, except Asian speleothems. Our study supports the hypothesis that internal climate forcing decreased ice volume together with the increase of latent heat export from the southern Indian Ocean set the timing of strong Indo-Asian summer monsoons within both the precession and obliquity cycle. The external forcing direct sensible heating initiate monsoonal circulation.

Strong Indian winter monsoon WM occurs between ice maxima and northern hemisphere sensible heat minima, indicating that both act to strengthen WM circulation. The summer and winter monsoons are in antiphase in the precession band suggesting that the two systems are dynamically linked. Previous article in issue.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Presented below are the research topics that Ph. However, the emergence and early evolution of two fundamental characteristics of divergent plate boundaries, segmentation and magmatism, are not well understood because most studies focus on mature or successfully rifted margins. Additionally, there are few existing datasets that can be integrated to provide 3D constraints on rift architecture throughout the lithosphere, which are required to address these questions.

This investigation produced estimates of mantle temperature and melt content within the rift and also highlighted the potential location of melt segregation along a steeply dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. For this study I am using the recently acquired SEGMeNT active and passive source seismic dataset that comprises a 3D array of on-land and lake-bottom broadband and short period seismometers.

With this data I plan to investigate the shear velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the region using teleseismic and ambient noise seismic processing.

Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and stories associated with the gh these stories are not directly attested, they have been reconstructed by scholars of comparative mythology based on the similarities in the belief systems of various Indo-European peoples.. Various schools of thought exist regarding the precise nature of Proto-Indo-European.

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Dating on Earth (extended version) part 1/9 (Eng sub)



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